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Antenna-on-chip and antenna-in-package solutions to highly-integrated millimeter-wave devices for wireless communications

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Antenna-on-chip and antenna-in-package solutions to highly-integrated millimeter-wave devices for wireless communications

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Title: Antenna-on-chip and antenna-in-package solutions to highly-integrated millimeter-wave devices for wireless communications
Author: Zhang, Yue Ping; Liu, Duixian
Copyright year: 2009
Abstract: Antenna-on-chip (AoC) and antenna-in-package (AiP) solutions are studied for highly integrated millimeter-wave (mmWave) devices in wireless communications. First, the background, regulations, standard, and applications of 60-GHz wireless communications are briefly introduced. Then, highly integrated 60-GHz radios are overviewed as a basis for the link budget analysis to derive the antenna gain requirement. Next, in order to have deep physical insight into the AoC solution, the silicon substrate’s high permittivity and low resistivity effects on the AoC efficiency are examined. It is shown that the AoC solution has low efficiency, less than 12% due to large ohmic losses and surface waves, which requires the development of techniques to improve the AoC efficiency. After that, the AiP solution and associated challenges such as how to realize low-loss interconnection between the chip and antenna are addressed. It is shown that wire-bonding interconnects, although inferior to the flip-chip, are still feasible in the 60-GHz band if proper compensation schemes are utilized. An example of the AiP solution in a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) process is presented in the 60-GHz band showing an efficiency better than 90%. A major concern with both AoC and AiP solutions is electromagnetic interference (EMI), which is also discussed. Finally, the systems level pros and cons of both AoC and AiP solutions are highlighted from the electrical and economic perspectives for system designers.
Subject: DRNTU::Engineering::Electrical and electronic engineering.
Type: Journal Article
Series/ Journal Title: IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation
School: School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Rights: © 2009 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder. http://www.ieee.org/portal/site This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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