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Experimental characterization and modeling of the mechanical properties of Cu–Cu thermocompression bonds for three-dimensional integrated circuits

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Experimental characterization and modeling of the mechanical properties of Cu–Cu thermocompression bonds for three-dimensional integrated circuits

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Title: Experimental characterization and modeling of the mechanical properties of Cu–Cu thermocompression bonds for three-dimensional integrated circuits
Author: Made, Riko I.; Gan, Chee Lip; Yan, Li Ling; Kor, Katherine Hwee Boon; Chia, Hong Ling; Pey, Kin Leong; Thompson, Carl V.
Copyright year: 2012
Abstract: An analytical model is proposed which relates the bonding temperature, pressure and duration with the integrity of metal–metal thermocompressionbonds. Unlike previous models, this approach takes into account the pressure-dependent time evolution of the thermocompressionbond formation. The model allows calculation of the true contact area of rough surfaces, based on a creep-dominated plastic deformation. Verification of the model was provided through experiments on Cu–Cuthermocompressionbonds of electroplated Cu on diced silicon wafers with chemically/mechanically polished surfaces. The samples were bonded at a range of temperatures, pressures and times. Shear strength measurements were used to characterize the effects of the bonding parameters on the interface bond strength. Calculated true contact area and bond shear strength can be related by a single proportionality factor. The model can be used to predict the thermocompressionbond quality for given bonding parameters and process optimization for reliable bonds, thus assisting in the adoption of the Cuthermocompressionbond process in three-dimensionalintegratedcircuit applications.
Subject: DRNTU::Engineering::Electrical and electronic engineering::Integrated circuits.
Type: Journal Article
Series/ Journal Title: Acta materialia
School: School of Materials Science and EngineeringSchool of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Rights: © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. This is the author created version of a work that has been peer reviewed and accepted for publication in Acta materialia, published by Elsevier on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc. It incorporates referee’s comments but changes resulting from the publishing process, such as copyediting, structural formatting, may not be reflected in this document. The published version is available at: [DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2011.09.038].

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