Membrane distillation and forward osmosis : advances in membranes, modules, and applications
Fane, Anthony Gordon
Tang, Chuyang Y.
Date of Issue2012
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Membrane distillation (MD) and forward osmosis (FO) are attracting interest for reuse and desalination applications. Both processes are low pressure and suited to using low-grade thermal energy, such as waste heat and solar, which yield low greenhouse-gas emissions. MD applications include desalination, concentrate processing by MD crystallization, and a unique MD bioreactor with high-quality permeate for wastewater reclamation. FO applications include desalting, brine usage, and an FO bioreactor, which also produces high-quality permeate for reuse. This article reviews research developments in MD and FO at the Singapore Membrane Technology Centre.
DRNTU::Engineering::Environmental engineering::Water treatment
IDA journal of desalination and water reuse
© 2012 IDA and AWWA.