Self-organization of ripples on Ti irradiated with focused ion beam
Qian, H. X.
Date of Issue2011
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
30 keV focused Ga+ ions were used to raster the metallographically polished surface of commercially pure Ti (CP Ti) at various FIB incidence angles over a wide range of doses (1016–1018 ions/cm2) at room temperature. The sputtered surfaces were observed in situ using FIB imaging and later carefully characterized ex situ under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Ripples were observed on the irradiated surfaces even at the normal FIB incidence angle. The ripple evolution is analyzed as functions of surface diffusion, surface crystallographic orientation, ion dose and incidence angle. It is found that the ripple orientation was progressively influenced by the ion beam direction with incidence angle increasing and in some cases curved ripples or fragmented rods viewed from different angles occurred at high ion doses. The morphological evolution from the well-developed straight ripples to the curved ones is never observed. The formation of ripples is attributed to the competition between the formation of ripples due to anisotropic surface diffusion and the formation of incidence-angle dependent ripples determined by Bradley–Harper (BH) model.
Applied surface science
© 2011 Elsevier B.V.