Double layer energy storage in graphene - a study
Subramaniam, C. K.
Date of Issue2012
School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering
An alternate energy storage device for high power applications are supercapacitors. They store energy either by pure electrostatic charge accumulation in the electrochemical double layer or as pseudo capacitance from fast reversible oxidation reduction process. However, they have low energy density. The electrodes in the Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC) are made of high surface area carbon. The carbon that can be used range from activated carbon to Graphene, with varying particle size, surface area, pore size and pore distribution. The main emphasis in the development of EDLCs is fabrication of electrodes having high surface area which would enhance the storage density of the EDLC. The EDLCs are assembled with different electrolytes which determine the operational voltage. Solid electrolytes can also be used as electrolyte and have an advantage in that we can avoid electrolyte leaks and are easy to handle. This would improve the reliability. They can also be shaped and sized to suit the application. The perflurosulfonic acid polymer as electrolyte has been used by various groups for EDLC application. The perflurosulfonic acid polymer possesses high ionic conductivity, good thermal stability, adequate mechanical strength and excellent chemical stability. The EDLCs, which are based on high-surface area carbon materials, utilize the capacitance arising from a purely non-Faradaic charge separation at an electrode/electrolyte interface. Carbon is widely used for many practical applications, especially for the adsorption of ions and molecules, as catalyst supports and electrode materials. The chemical characteristics of carbon determine the performance in all these applications. It is now possible to synthesize one-, two-, or three-dimensional (1-, 2-, or 3-D) carbons. Thus, carbon materials are very suitable candidates for super capacitor electrodes. We can overcome some of the problems in activated carbon like varying micro or meso pores, poor ion mobility due to varying pore distribution, low electrical conductivity, by using Graphene. Many forms of Graphene have been used by various groups. Graphene nanoplates (GNP), with narrow mesopore distribution have been effectively used to enhance charge storage performance. It has been found that graphene shows smaller decrease in storage capacity with increasing scan rate.
Micro and nanosystems
© 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.