Bruton's tyrosine kinase phosphorylates Toll-like receptor 3 to initiate antiviral response
Date of Issue2012
School of Biological Sciences
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mediates antiviral response by recognizing double-stranded RNA. Its cytoplasmic domain is tyrosine phosphorylated upon ligand binding and initiates downstream signaling via the adapter TIR-containing adaptor inducing interferon–β (TRIF). However, the kinase responsible for TLR3 phosphorylation remains unknown. We show here that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK)-deficient macrophages failed to secrete inflammatory cytokines and IFN-β upon TLR3 stimulation and were impaired in clearing intracellular dengue virus infection. Mutant mice were also less susceptible to D-galactosamine/p(I:C)-induced sepsis. In the absence of BTK, TLR3-induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), AKT and MAPK signaling and activation of NFκB, IRF3, and AP-1 transcription factors were all defective. We demonstrate that BTK directly phosphorylates TLR3 and in particular the critical Tyr759 residue. BTK point mutations that abrogate or led to constitutive kinase activity have opposite effects on TLR3 phosphorylation. Loss of BTK also compromises the formation of the downstream TRIF/receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1)/TBK1 complex. Thus, BTK plays a critical role in initiating TLR3 signaling.
Proceedings of the national academy of sciences
© 2012 National Academy of Sciences. This paper was published in Proceedings of the national academy of sciences and is made available as an electronic reprint (preprint) with permission of National Academy of Sciences. The paper can be found at the following official OpenURL: [http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1119238109]. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic or multiple reproduction, distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper is prohibited and is subject to penalties under law.