Morphine and galectin-1 modulate HIV-1 infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages
Reynolds, Jessica L.
Mahajan, Supriya D.
Sykes, D. E.
Mammen, M. J.
Prasad, Paras N.
Schwartz, Stanley A.
Date of Issue2012
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Morphine is a widely abused, addictive drug that modulates immune function. Macrophages are a primary reservoir of HIV-1; therefore, they play a role in the development of this disease, as well as impact the overall course of disease progression. Galectin-1 is a member of a family of β-galactoside-binding lectins that are soluble adhesion molecules and that mediate direct cell-pathogen interactions during HIV-1 viral adhesion. Because the drug abuse epidemic and the HIV-1 epidemic are closely interrelated, we propose that increased expression of galectin-1 induced by morphine may modulate HIV-1 infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). In this article, we show that galectin-1 gene and protein expression are potentiated by incubation with morphine. Confirming previous studies, morphine alone or galectin-1 alone enhance HIV-1 infection of MDMs. Concomitant incubation with exogenous galectin-1 and morphine potentiated HIV-1 infection of MDMs. We used a nanotechnology approach that uses gold nanorod-galectin-1 small interfering RNA complexes (nanoplexes) to inhibit gene expression for galectin-1. We found that nanoplexes silenced gene expression for galectin-1, and they reversed the effects of morphine on galectin-1 expression. Furthermore, the effects of morphine on HIV-1 infection were reduced in the presence of the nanoplex.
DRNTU::Engineering::Electrical and electronic engineering
The journal of immunology