Oligo[poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate] hydrogel enhances osteochondral repair in porcine femoral condyle defects
Hui, James H.
Afizah, Mohd Hassan
Chian, Kerm Sin
Mikos, Antonios G.
Date of Issue2012
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Background Management of osteochondritis dissecans remains a challenge. Use of oligo[poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate] (OPF) hydrogel scaffold alone has been reported in osteochondral defect repair in small animal models. However, preclinical evaluation of usage of this scaffold alone as a treatment strategy is limited. Questions/purposes We therefore (1) determined in vitro pore size and mechanical stiffness of freeze-dried and rehydrated freeze-dried OPF hydrogels, respectively; (2) assessed in vivo gross defect filling percentage and histologic findings in defects implanted with rehydrated freeze-dried hydrogels for 2 and 4 months in a porcine model; (3) analyzed highly magnified histologic sections for different types of cartilage repair tissues, subchondral bone, and scaffold; and (4) assessed neotissue filling percentage, cartilage phenotype, and Wakitani scores. Methods We measured pore size of freeze-dried OPF hydrogel scaffolds and mechanical stiffness of fresh and rehydrated forms. Twenty-four osteochondral defects from 12 eight-month-old micropigs were equally divided into scaffold and control (no scaffold) groups. Gross and histologic examination, one-way ANOVA, and one-way Mann-Whitney U test were performed at 2 and 4 months postoperatively. Results Pore sizes ranged from 20 to 433 μm in diameter. Rehydrated freeze-dried scaffolds had mechanical stiffness of 1 MPa. The scaffold itself increased percentage of neotissue filling at both 2 and 4 months to 58% and 54%, respectively, with hyaline cartilage making up 39% of neotissue at 4 months. Conclusions Rehydrated freeze-dried OPF hydrogel can enhance formation of hyaline-fibrocartilaginous mixed repair tissue of osteochondral defects in a porcine model. Clinical Relevance Rehydrated freeze-dried OPF hydrogel alone implanted into cartilage defects is insufficient to generate a homogeneously hyaline cartilage repair tissue, but its spacer effect can be enhanced by other tissue-regenerating mediators.
Clinical orthopaedics and related research®