Synergistic effect of microbubble emulsion and sonic or ultrasonic agitation on endodontic biofilm in vitro
Date of Issue2012
School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences
Introduction: Irrigation dynamics and antibacterial activity determine the efficacy of root canal disinfection. Sonic or ultrasonic agitation of irrigants is expected to improve irrigation dynamics. This study examined the effects of microbubble emulsion (ME) combined with sonic or ultrasonic agitation on irrigation dynamics and reduction of biofilm bacteria within root canal models. Methods: Two experiments were conducted. First, high-speed imaging was used to characterize the bubble dynamics generated in ME by sonic or ultrasonic agitation within canals of polymer tooth models. Second, 5.25% NaOCl irrigation or ME was sonically or ultrasonically agitated in canals of extracted teeth with 7-day-grown Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Dentinal shavings from canal walls were sampled at 1 mm and 3 mm from the apical terminus, and colony-forming units (CFUs) were enumerated. Mean log CFU/mL values were analyzed with analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results: High-speed imaging demonstrated strongly oscillating and vaporizing bubbles generated within ME during ultrasonic but not sonic agitation. Compared with CFU counts in controls, NaOCl-sonic and NaOCl-ultrasonic yielded significantly lower counts (P < .05) at both measurement levels. ME-sonic yielded significantly lower counts (P = .002) at 3 mm, whereas ME-ultrasonic yielded highly significantly lower counts (P = .000) at both measurement levels. At 3 mm, ME-ultrasonic yielded significantly lower CFU counts (P = .000) than ME-sonic, NaOCl-sonic, and NaOCl-ultrasonic. Conclusions: Enhanced bubble dynamics and reduced E. faecalis biofilm bacteria beyond the level achieved by sonic or ultrasonic agitation of NaOCl suggested a synergistic effect of ME combined with ultrasonic agitation.
Journal of endodontics