Reduction of bubble cavitation by modifying the diffraction wave from a lithotripter aperture
Date of Issue2012
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Purpose: A new method was devised to suppress the bubble cavitation in the lithotripter focal zone to reduce the propensity of shockwave-induced renal injury. Materials and Methods: An edge extender was designed and fabricated to fit on the outside of the ellipsoidal reflector of an electrohydraulic lithotripter to disturb the generation of diffraction wave at the aperture, but with little effect on the acoustic field inside the reflector. Results: Although the peak negative pressures at the lithotripter focus using the edge extender at 20 kV were similar to that of the original configuration (-11.1±0.9 vs −10.6±0.7 MPa), the duration of the tensile wave was shortened significantly (3.2±0.54 vs 5.83±0.56 μs, P<0.01). There is no difference, however, in both the amplitude and duration of the compressive shockwaves between these two configurations as well as the −6 dB beam width in the focal plane. The significant suppression effect of bubble cavitation was confirmed by the measured bubble collapse time using passive cavitation detection. At the lithotripter focus, while only about 30 shocks were needed to rupture a blood vessel phantom using the original HM-3 reflector at 20 kV, no damage could be produced after 300 shocks using the edge extender. Meanwhile, the original HM-3 lithotripter at 20 kV can achieve a stone comminution efficiency of 50.4±2.0% on plaster-of-Paris stone phantom after 200 shocks, which is comparable to that of using the edge extender (46.8±4.1%, P=0.005). Conclusions: Modifying the diffraction wave at the lithotripter aperture can suppress the shockwave-induced bubble cavitation with significant reduced damage potential on the vessel phantom but satisfactory stone comminution ability.
DRNTU::Engineering::Mechanical engineering::Mechanics and dynamics
Journal of endourology
© 2012 Mary Ann Liebert. This paper was published in Journal of Endourology and is made available as an electronic reprint (preprint) with permission of Mary Ann Liebert. The paper can be found at the following official DOI: [http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2011.0671]. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic or multiple reproduction, distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper is prohibited and is subject to penalties under law.