从频率效应看上古汉语*-s后缀 = A study of *-s suffix in archaic Chinese based on frequency effect
黄颖瑜 Ng, Yin Yee
Date of Issue2013
School of Humanities and Social Sciences
上古汉语音变构词包括四声别义和清浊别义等等。其中，四声别义还存在着许多重要的规律问题未被揭示。四声别义的来源为上古的*-s后缀，已获得大部分学者的认同。根据周法高（1962）所罗列出四声别义众多功能，其最主要的四项功能为动名化功能、名动化功能、使动化功能和反使动化功能。然而，同一个*-s后缀能否统摄反方向的功能？前人虽然想尝试回答同个*-s后缀能否同时操作相反的动名化功能和名动化功能的问题，但都无法提出有效的独立证据。据此，本文通过了类型学上“频率效应”（Frequency Effect）的测试，希望能证明*-s后缀这两组相反的功能是符合活语言上的通则的。 此外，当一个动词加上*-s后缀之后究竟会转换为名词、使动词或自动词？其具体的分化条件为何？这种规律性问题也从未被讨论过。因此，本文也将通过动词与其变式的论元结构分布来解决这一问题。 The morphological processes in Archaic Chinese include si sheng bie yi (四声别义), qing zhuo bie yi (清浊别义) etc. Among these morphological processes, there are still rooms for discussion regarding the regularity of si sheng bie yi(四声别义). Many scholars agree that *-s suffix is the source for si sheng bie yi(四声别义). According to the data collected by Chou Fa Kao (1962), the *-s suffix in Archaic Chinese has several functions, which include deriving a verb from a noun , deriving a noun from a verb , deriving a causative verb from an inchoative verb and deriving an inchoative verb from a causative verb. However, how does the same *-s suffix embrace these seemingly contrasting functions? Some scholars tried but were unsuccessful in providing an explanation for this question. This paper aims to offer an explanation grounded in typological tradition to prove that the various functions of *-s suffix could be explained using the frequency effect. This paper further argues that the *-s suffix, when added to a verb, will have different outcome based on the valence and transitivity of the particular verb.
Final Year Project (FYP)
Nanyang Technological University