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Title: Validation of the IRI-2012 model with GPS-based ground observation over a low-latitude Singapore station
Authors: Kumar, Sanjay
Siingh, Devendraa
Tan, Eng Leong
Razul, Sirajudeen Gulam
See, Chong Meng Samson
Keywords: DRNTU::Science::Astronomy::Astrophysics
Issue Date: 2014
Source: Kumar, S., Tan, E. L., Razul, S. G., See, C. M. S., & Siingh, D. (2014). Validation of the IRI-2012 model with GPS-based ground observation over a low-latitude Singapore station. Earth, Planets and Space, 66(1), 17-.
Series/Report no.: Earth, planets and space
Abstract: The ionospheric total electron content (TEC) in the low-latitude Singapore region (geographic latitude 01.37° N, longitude, 103.67° E, geomagnetic latitude 8.5° S) for 2010 to 2011 was retrieved using the data from global positioning system (GPS)-based measurements. The observed TEC from GPS is compared with those derived from the latest International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)-2012 model with three options, IRI-Nequick (IRI-Neq), IRI-2001, and IRI-01-Corr, for topside electron density. The results showed that the IRI-Neq and IRI-01-Corr models are in good agreement with GPS-TEC values at all times, in all seasons, for the year 2010. For the year 2011, these two models showed agreement at all times with GPS-TEC only for the summer season, and for the period 11:00 to 24:00 UT hours (19:00 to 24:00 LT and 00:00 to 08:00 LT) during the winter and equinox seasons. The IRI-2012 model electron density profile showed agreement with constellation observing system for meteorology, ionosphere, and climate (COSMIC) radio occultation (RO)-based measurements around 250 to 300 km and was found to be independent of the options for topside density profiles. However, above 300 km, the IRI-2012 model electron density profile does not show agreement with COSMIC measurements. The observations (COSMIC and GPS) and IRI-2012-based data of TEC and electron density profiles were also analyzed during quiet and storm periods. The analysis showed that the IRI model does not represent the impact of storms, while observations show the impact of storms on the low-latitude ionosphere. This suggests that significant improvements in the IRI model are required for estimating behavior during storms, particularly in low-latitude regions.
ISSN: 1880-5981
DOI: 10.1186/1880-5981-66-17
Rights: © 2014 Kumar et al.; licensee Springer. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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