PPARβ/δ attenuates palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and induces autophagic markers in human cardiac cells
Davidson, Mercy M.
Date of Issue2014
Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine
Background: Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to the apoptotic cell death in the myocardium, thereby playing a critical role in the development of cardiomyopathy. ER stress has been reported to be induced after high-fat diet feeding in mice and also after saturated fatty acid treatment in vitro. Therefore, since several studies have shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)β/δ inhibits ER stress, the main goal of this study consisted in investigating whether activation of this nuclear receptor was able to prevent lipid-induced ER stress in cardiac cells. Methods and results: Wild-type and transgenic mice with reduced PPARβ/δ expression were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet for two months. For in vitro studies, a cardiomyocyte cell line of human origin, AC16, was treated with palmitate and the PPARβ/δ agonist GW501516. Our results demonstrate that palmitate induced ER stress in AC16 cells, a fact which was prevented after PPARβ/δ activation with GW501516. Interestingly, the effect of GW501516 on ER stress occurred in an AMPK-independent manner. The most striking result of this study is that GW501516 treatment also upregulated the protein levels of beclin 1 and LC3II, two well-known markers of autophagy. In accordance with this, feeding on a high-fat diet or suppression of PPARβ/δ in knockout mice induced ER stress in the heart. Moreover, PPARβ/δ knockout mice also displayed a reduction in autophagic markers. Conclusion: Our data indicate that PPARβ/δ activation might be useful to prevent the harmful effects of ER stress induced by saturated fatty acids in the heart by inducing autophagy.
International journal of cardiology
© 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. This is the author created version of a work that has been peer reviewed and accepted for publication by International Journal of Cardiology, Elsevier Ireland Ltd. It incorporates referee’s comments but changes resulting from the publishing process, such as copyediting, structural formatting, may not be reflected in this document. The published version is available at: [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.03.176].