馬來西亞獨中生認知「拿」類手部動作動詞的機制－以「V+N」動賓結構為例 = Malaysian Chinese independent high school students' cognitive understanding of Take "Na" action verbs in Chinese : examples from "V + N" structures
陳秀君 Chin, Siew-Chien
高虹 Gao, Helena Hong
Date of Issue2014
School of Humanities and Social Sciences
來西亞的華語類似台灣的國語和新加坡的华語，都是在課堂上正規的普通話教育和課外社會中漢語多種方言的扶持下逐步發展起來的。這使得馬拉西亞的華語在很多方面更接近台灣的國語和新加坡的華語，而不是中國大陸的普通話。由於複雜的語言環境也使得馬來西亞華語使用者對有些詞彙的掌握和使用上出現了偏好，比如偏向使用某一個詞來表達一類類似的事件或一類相似的事物，而對其他同義或近義的詞卻很少使用等。根據我們的語感和觀察，發現馬來西亞的華語使用者就「拿」類手部動作動詞的應用上，存在「一物多拿」的現象。於是我們做了一項實證研究，假設「V（「拿」類手部動作動詞）+N」結構是藉由認知「拿」的機制，即建立在賓語屬性範疇化與「拿」的動作屬性之間的導向關係，以馬來西亞南部（簡稱南馬區）三所獨立中學（即以華語為教學媒介語的中學）為例，通過抽樣實證和量化數據來討論馬來西亞華語使用者「一物多拿」的現象，既而解釋華語使用者認知「拿」的機制如何啓動受事名詞及其物體知識、謂詞結構及其動作等相關的知識。Similar to Taiwan and Singaporean Chinese, Malaysian Chinese has been developed by means of formal education at school as well as by taking Chinese dialects as a bridge to the lerning of the Chinese language, nonrmally known as Putonghua. Due to the similar complex language environments, Malaysian Chinese has become more similar to Singaporean and Taiwan Chinese than Putonghua spoken in Mainland China. Malaysian Chinese speakers are found to have a tendence in using certain lexical words more often than others. According to our experience and observation, the Malaysian Chinese speakers tend to use the verb Na “take” to describe many similar actions with different kinds of patient objects involved in the V + N structure. In this study we conducted an experiment based on our assumption that the structure of V (Na “take” action verbs) + N is a reflection of the Chinese speakers’cognitive process of the the event structure of taking actions. That is, the semantic domains that the patient objects of the Na “take” action verb belong to are correlated with the action manners of the Na “take” actions that the verb describes. The participants of the study were from three Chinese independent high schools in the southern part of Malaysia. These schools provide secondary education in the Chinese language as the continuation of the primary education in Chinese national-type primary schools. The experiment results were analyzed and discussed to show how the Malaysian Chinese speakers had the cognitive mapping between the Na “take” action verbs and their different kinds of patient objects. Discussions were given about how the speakers’ cognitive understanding of the Na “take” actions would activate the speakers’ prior knowledge of the corresponding action verbs and the semantic knowledge of their patient objects, which altogether would build up the linguistic structure of the verbs. 馬
Taiwan journal of Chinese as a second language (臺灣華語教學研究)
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