dc.contributor.authorEkklesia, Eveline
dc.contributor.authorShanahan, P.
dc.contributor.authorChua, L. H. C.
dc.contributor.authorEikaas, H. S.
dc.date.accessioned2015-03-24T04:34:45Z
dc.date.available2015-03-24T04:34:45Z
dc.date.copyright2015en_US
dc.date.issued2015
dc.identifier.citationEkklesia, E., Shanahan, P., Chua, L., & Eikaas, H. (2015). Associations of chemical tracers and faecal indicator bacteria in a tropical urban catchment. Water research, 75, 270-281.en_US
dc.identifier.issn0043-1354en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10220/25261
dc.description.abstractSurface water contamination by human faecal wastes is a widespread hazard for human health. Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are the most widely used indicators to assess surface water quality but are less-human-specific and have the potential to survive longer and/or occur naturally in tropical areas. In this study, 13 wastewater chemicals (chloride, boron, orthosphophate, detergents as methylene blue active substances, cholesterol, cholestanol, coprostanol, diethylhexyl phthalate, caffeine, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, sucralose and saccharin) were investigated in order to evaluate tracers for human faecal and sewage contamination in tropical urban catchments. Surface water samples were collected at an hourly interval from sampling locations with distinct major land uses: high-density residential, low-density residential, commercial and industrial. Measured concentrations were analysed to investigate the association among indicators and tracers for each land-use category. Better correlations were found between different indicators and tracers in each land-use dataset than in the dataset for all land uses, which shows that land use is an important determinant of drain water quality. Data were further segregated based on the hourly FIB concentrations. There were better correlations between FIB and chemical tracers when FIB concentrations were higher. Therefore, sampling programs must be designed carefully to take the time of sampling and land use into account in order to effectively assess human faecal and sewage contamination in urban catchments. FIB is recommended as the first tier in assessment of surface water quality impairment and chemical tracers as the second tier. Acetaminophen and coprostanol are recommended as chemical tracers for high-density residential areas, while chloride, coprostanol and caffeine are recommended for low-density residential areas.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNRF (Natl Research Foundation, S’pore)en_US
dc.format.extent41 p.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesWater researchen_US
dc.rights© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. This is the author created version of a work that has been peer reviewed and accepted for publication by Water Research, Elsevier Ltd. It incorporates referee’s comments but changes resulting from the publishing process, such as copyediting, structural formatting, may not be reflected in this document. The published version is available at: [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2015.02.037].en_US
dc.subjectDRNTU::Engineering::Environmental engineering::Water supply
dc.titleAssociations of chemical tracers and faecal indicator bacteria in a tropical urban catchmenten_US
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2015.02.037
dc.description.versionAccepted versionen_US
dc.contributor.organizationCentre for Environmental Sensing and Modeling (CENSAM)en_US
dc.contributor.organizationPublic Utilities Board of Singaporeen_US


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