dc.contributor.authorCao, Feng
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Chao
dc.contributor.authorVo Doan, Tat Thang
dc.contributor.authorLi, Yao
dc.contributor.authorSangi, Daniyal Haider
dc.contributor.authorKoh, Jie Sheng
dc.contributor.authorHuynh, Ngoc Anh
dc.contributor.authorAziz, Mohamed Fareez Bin
dc.contributor.authorChoo, Hao Yu
dc.contributor.authorIkeda, Kazuo
dc.contributor.authorAbbeel, Pieter
dc.contributor.authorMaharbiz, Michel M.
dc.contributor.authorSato, Hirotaka
dc.contributor.editorLazzari, Claudio R.*
dc.identifier.citationCao, F., Zhang, C., Vo Doan, T. T., Li, Y., Sangi, D. H., Koh, J. S., et al. (2014). A biological micro actuator : graded and closed-loop control of insect leg motion by electrical stimulation of muscles. PLoS ONE, 9(8), e105389-.en_US
dc.description.abstractIn this study, a biological microactuator was demonstrated by closed-loop motion control of the front leg of an insect (Mecynorrhina torquata, beetle) via electrical stimulation of the leg muscles. The three antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in the front leg enabled the actuator to have three degrees of freedom: protraction/retraction, levation/depression, and extension/flexion. We observed that the threshold amplitude (voltage) required to elicit leg motions was approximately 1.0 V; thus, we fixed the stimulation amplitude at 1.5 V to ensure a muscle response. The leg motions were finely graded by alternation of the stimulation frequencies: higher stimulation frequencies elicited larger leg angular displacement. A closedloop control system was then developed, where the stimulation frequency was the manipulated variable for leg-muscle stimulation (output from the final control element to the leg muscle) and the angular displacement of the leg motion was the system response. This closed-loop control system, with an optimized proportional gain and update time, regulated the leg to set at predetermined angular positions. The average electrical stimulation power consumption per muscle group was 148 mW. These findings related to and demonstrations of the leg motion control offer promise for the future development of a reliable, low-power, biological legged machine (i.e., an insect–machine hybrid legged robot).en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipASTAR (Agency for Sci., Tech. and Research, S’pore)
dc.format.extent14 p.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesPLoS Oneen_US
dc.rights© 2014 Cao et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en_US
dc.titleA biological micro actuator : graded and closed-loop control of insect leg motion by electrical stimulation of musclesen_US
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Electrical and Electronic Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineeringen_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US

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