Dissecting diabetes/metabolic disease mechanisms using pluripotent stem cells and genome editing tools
Teo, Adrian Kee Keong
Gupta, Manoj K.
Kulkarni, Rohit N.
Date of Issue2015
School of Biological Sciences
Background: Diabetes and metabolic syndromes are chronic, devastating diseases with increasing prevalence. Human pluripotent stem cells are gaining popularity in their usage for human in vitro disease modeling. With recent rapid advances in genome editing tools, these cells can now be genetically manipulated with relative ease to study how genes and gene variants contribute to diabetes and metabolic syndromes. Scope of review: We highlight the diabetes and metabolic genes and gene variants, which could potentially be studied, using two powerful technologies – human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and genome editing tools – to aid the elucidation of yet elusive mechanisms underlying these complex diseases. Major conclusions: hPSCs and the advancing genome editing tools appear to be a timely and potent combination for probing molecular mechanism(s) underlying diseases such as diabetes and metabolic syndromes. The knowledge gained from these hiPSC-based disease modeling studies can potentially be translated into the clinics by guiding clinicians on the appropriate type of medication to use for each condition based on the mechanism of action of the disease.
Diabetes; Metabolic disease; Pluripotent stem cells; Genome editing; CRISPR/Cas; Disease modeling
© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).