Excessive distribution of quantum entanglement
Date of Issue2016
School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences
We classify entanglement distribution protocols based on whether or not entanglement gain is observed with respect to communicated and initial entanglement. We call a protocol nonexcessive if the gain of entanglement is bounded by the communicated entanglement and excessive if it violates this bound. We present examples of excessive protocols that achieve significant gain, independently of the presence of the initial and (or) communicated entanglement. We show that, for certain entanglement measures, excessive entanglement distribution is possible even with pure states, which sheds light on the possibility of formulating a unifying approach to quantifiers of quantum correlations. We point out a “catalytic” effect, where a protocol is turned into an excessive one by sending an intermediate particle (which does not change the initial entanglement) in advance of the designated carrier. Finally, we analyze the protocols in noisy scenarios and show that, under suitable conditions, excessive distribution may be the only way to achieve entanglement gain.
Physical Review A
© 2016 American Physical Society. This paper was published in Physical Review A and is made available as an electronic reprint (preprint) with permission of American Physical Society. The published version is available at: [http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.93.012305]. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic or multiple reproduction, distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper is prohibited and is subject to penalties under law.