Biofilms of Pathogenic Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Targeted by New Therapeutic Approaches
Aung, Thet Tun
Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong
Salleh, Shuhaida Mohamed
Lwin, Nyein Chan
Beuerman, Roger W.
Date of Issue2015
School of Biological Sciences
Singapore Centre on Environmental Life Sciences Engineering
Microbial infections of the cornea are potentially devastating and can result in permanent visual loss or require vision-rescuing surgery. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports on nontuberculous mycobacterial infections of the cornea. Challenges to the management of nontuberculous mycobacterial keratitis include delayed laboratory detection, low index of clinical suspicion, poor drug penetration, slow response to therapy, and prolonged use of antibiotic combinations. The ability of nontuberculous mycobacteria to evade the host immune response and the ability to adhere and to form biofilms on biological and synthetic substrates contribute to the issue. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new antimicrobial compounds that can overcome these problems. In this study, we evaluated the biofilm architectures for Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium fortuitum in dynamic flow cell chamber and 8-well chamber slide models. Our results showed that mycobacterial biofilms were quite resistant to conventional antibiotics. However, DNase treatment could be used to overcome biofilm resistance. Moreover, we successfully evaluated a new antimicrobial compound (AM-228) that was effective not only for planktonic mycobacterial cells but also for biofilm treatment and was compared favorably with the most successful “fourth-generation” fluoroquinolone, gatifloxacin. Finally, a new treatment strategy emerged: a combination of DNase with an antibiotic was more effective than an antibiotic alone.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
© 2015 Aung et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license, which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.