dc.contributor.authorLee, Heng Gee
dc.contributor.authorWilliam, Timothy
dc.contributor.authorMenon, Jayaram
dc.contributor.authorRalph, Anna P.
dc.contributor.authorOoi, Eng Eong
dc.contributor.authorHou, Yan’an
dc.contributor.authorSessions, October
dc.contributor.authorYeo, Tsin Wen
dc.date.accessioned2016-08-02T04:35:16Z
dc.date.available2016-08-02T04:35:16Z
dc.date.issued2016
dc.identifier.citationLee, H. G., William, T., Menon, J., Ralph, A. P., Ooi, E. E., Hou, Y., et al. (2016). Tuberculous meningitis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in adults with central nervous system infections in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: an observational study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 16, 296-.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1471-2334en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10220/41036
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections are a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality globally. However, most published studies have been conducted in developed countries where the epidemiology and aetiology differ significantly from less developed areas. Additionally, there may be regional differences due to variation in the socio-economic levels, public health services and vaccination policies. Currently, no prospective studies have been conducted in Sabah, East Malaysia to define the epidemiology and aetiology of CNS infections. A better understanding of these is essential for the development of local guidelines for diagnosis and management. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study in patients aged 12 years and older with suspected central nervous system infections at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia between February 2012 and March 2013. Cerebrospinal fluid was sent for microscopy, biochemistry, bacterial and mycobacterial cultures, Mycobacterium tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and multiplex and MassCode PCR for various viral and bacterial pathogens. RESULTS: A total of 84 patients with clinically suspected meningitis and encephalitis were enrolled. An aetiological agent was confirmed in 37/84 (44 %) of the patients. The most common diagnoses were tuberculous meningitis (TBM) (41/84, 48.8 %) and cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (14/84, 16.6 %). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 13/41 (31.7 %) clinically diagnosed TBM patients by cerebrospinal fluid PCR or culture. The acute case fatality rate during hospital admission was 16/84 (19 %) in all patients, 4/43 (9 %) in non-TBM, and 12/41 (29 %) in TBM patients respectively (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: TBM is the most common cause of CNS infection in patients aged 12 years or older in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Further studies are required to improve the management and outcome of TBM.en_US
dc.format.extent8 p.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesBMC Infectious Diseasesen_US
dc.rights© 2016 The Author(s). Open Access: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.en_US
dc.subjectCentral nervous system infectionsen_US
dc.subjectTuberculous meningitisen_US
dc.titleTuberculous meningitis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in adults with central nervous system infections in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: an observational studyen_US
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.contributor.schoolLee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine)
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-016-1640-x
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US


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