New Generation Cadmium-Free Quantum Dots for Biophotonics and Nanomedicine
Swihart, Mark T.
Prasad, Paras N.
Date of Issue2016
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
This review summarizes recent progress in the design and applications of cadmium-free quantum dots (Cd-free QDs), with an emphasis on their role in biophotonics and nanomedicine. We first present the features of Cd-free QDs and describe the physics and emergent optical properties of various types of Cd-free QDs whose applications are discussed in subsequent sections. Selected specific QD systems are introduced, followed by the preparation of these Cd-free QDs in a form useful for biological applications, including recent advances in achieving high photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) and tunability of emission color. Next, we summarize biophotonic applications of Cd-free QDs in optical imaging, photoacoustic imaging, sensing, optical tracking, and photothermal therapy. Research advances in the use of Cd-free QDs for nanomedicine applications are discussed, including drug/gene delivery, protein/peptide delivery, image-guided surgery, diagnostics, and medical devices. The review then considers the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of Cd-free QDs and summarizes current studies on the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of Cd-free QDs. Finally, we provide perspectives on the overall current status, challenges, and future directions in this field.
cadmium-free quantum dots
© 2016 American Chemical Society. This is the author created version of a work that has been peer reviewed and accepted for publication by Chemical Reviews, American Chemical Society. It incorporates referee’s comments but changes resulting from the publishing process, such as copyediting, structural formatting, may not be reflected in this document. The published version is available at: [http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00290].