dc.contributor.authorHartung, Steffen
dc.contributor.authorBucher, Nicolas
dc.contributor.authorFranklin, Joseph B.
dc.contributor.authorWise, Anna M.
dc.contributor.authorLim, Linda Y.
dc.contributor.authorChen, Han-Yi
dc.contributor.authorWeker, Johanna Nelson
dc.contributor.authorMichel-Beyerle, Maria-Elisabeth
dc.contributor.authorToney, Michael F.
dc.contributor.authorSrinivasan, Madhavi
dc.identifier.citationHartung, S., Bucher, N., Franklin, J. B., Wise, A. M., Lim, L. Y., Chen, H.-Y., et al. (2016). Mechanism of Na+ Insertion in Alkali Vanadates and Its Influence on Battery Performance. Advanced Energy Materials, 6(9), 1502336-.en_US
dc.description.abstractSodium-ion batteries may become an alternative to the widespread lithium-ion technology due to cost and kinetic advantages provided that cyclability is improved. For this purpose, the interplay between electrochemical and structural processes is key and is demonstrated in this work for Na2.46V6O16 (NVO) and Li2.55V6O16 employing operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction. When NVO is cycled between 4.0 and 1.6 V, Na-ions reversibly occupy two crystallographic sites, which results in remarkable cyclability. Upon discharge to 1.0 V, however, Na-ions occupy also interstitial sites, inducing irreversible structural change with some loss of crystallinity concomitant with a decrease in capacity. Capacity fading increases with the ionic radius of the alkali ions (K+ > Na+ > Li+), suggesting that smaller ions stabilize the structure. This correlation of structural variation and electrochemical performance suggests a route toward improving cycling stability of a sodium-ion battery. Its essence is a minor Li+-retention in the A2+xV6O16 structure. Even though the majority of Li-ions are replaced by the abundant Na+, the residual Li-ions (≈10%) are sufficient to stabilize the layered structure, diminishing the irreversible structural damage. These results pave the way for further exploitation of the role of small ions in lattice stabilization that increases cycling performance.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNRF (Natl Research Foundation, S’pore)en_US
dc.format.extent44 p.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesAdvanced Energy Materialsen_US
dc.rights© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is the author created version of a work that has been peer reviewed and accepted for publication by Advanced Energy Materials, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. It incorporates referee’s comments but changes resulting from the publishing process, such as copyediting, structural formatting, may not be reflected in this document. The published version is available at: [http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201502336].en_US
dc.subjectIn operandoen_US
dc.subjectIrreversible Na+-insertionen_US
dc.titleMechanism of Na+ Insertion in Alkali Vanadates and Its Influence on Battery Performanceen_US
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.contributor.researchEnergy Research Institute @NTUen_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Materials Science and Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Physical and Mathematical Sciencesen_US
dc.description.versionAccepted versionen_US

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