dc.contributor.authorTan, Yong Zen
dc.contributor.authorChew, Jia Wei
dc.contributor.authorKrantz, William B.
dc.identifier.citationTan, Y. Z., Chew, J. W., & Krantz, W. B. (2016). Effect of humic-acid fouling on membrane distillation. Journal of Membrane Science, 504, 263-273.en_US
dc.description.abstractMembrane distillation (MD) can concentrate non-volatile solutes or remove volatiles and dissolved gases from an aqueous feed. A microporous hydrophobic membrane provides a barrier between the hot feed and cold distillate. Although MD can operate at ambient pressure and moderate temperatures, use waste heat, and treat wastewater via an MD-bioreactor, it has problems such as temperature polarization, liquid weeping to the distillate side, and membrane fouling. Prior studies speculated that fouling can add a heat- or mass-transfer resistance, or cause a vapor-pressure reduction owing to the Kelvin effect, but did not isolate these effects. This study confirms that the vapor-pressure depression owing to the concave interface in the small pores of the fouling layer is a dominant cause of the 25–63% flux reduction observed for humic-acid fouling on PTFE and PVDF membranes. This study underscores the importance of selecting MD membranes based on their pore-size distribution rather than just their nominal diameter in order to maximize the contribution of Knudsen diffusion. It suggests the development of dual-layer membranes having a thin hydrophilic layer with relatively large pores overlying a hydrophobic layer with a typical MD membrane structure in order to mitigate the vapor-pressure reduction owing to membrane fouling.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNRF (Natl Research Foundation, S’pore)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMOE (Min. of Education, S’pore)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipEDB (Economic Devt. Board, S’pore)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesJournal of Membrane Scienceen_US
dc.rights© 2016 Elsevier B.V.en_US
dc.subjectMembrane Distillationen_US
dc.titleEffect of humic-acid fouling on membrane distillationen_US
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.contributor.researchSingapore Membrane Technology Centreen_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Chemical and Biomedical Engineeringen_US

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