Sequence-specific and Selective Recognition of Double-stranded RNAs over Single-stranded RNAs by Chemically Modified Peptide Nucleic Acids
Toh, Desiree-Faye Kaixin
Patil, Kiran M.
Date of Issue2017
School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences
RNAs are emerging as important biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Thus, there is great potential in developing chemical probes and therapeutic ligands for the recognition of RNA sequence and structure. Chemically modified Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) oligomers have been recently developed that can recognize RNA duplexes in a sequence-specific manner. PNAs are chemically stable with a neutral peptide-like backbone. PNAs can be synthesized relatively easily by the manual Boc-chemistry solid-phase peptide synthesis method. PNAs are purified by reverse-phase HPLC, followed by molecular weight characterization by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). Non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) technique facilitates the imaging of the triplex formation, because carefully designed free RNA duplex constructs and PNA bound triplexes often show different migration rates. Non-denaturing PAGE with ethidium bromide post staining is often an easy and informative technique for characterizing the binding affinities and specificities of PNA oligomers. Typically, multiple RNA hairpins or duplexes with single base pair mutations can be used to characterize PNA binding properties, such as binding affinities and specificities. 2-Aminopurine is an isomer of adenine (6-aminopurine); the 2-aminopurine fluorescence intensity is sensitive to local structural environment changes, and is suitable for the monitoring of triplex formation with the 2-aminopurine residue incorporated near the PNA binding site. 2-Aminopurine fluorescence titration can also be used to confirm the binding selectivity of modified PNAs towards targeted double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) over single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs). UV-absorbance-detected thermal melting experiments allow the measurement of the thermal stability of PNA-RNA duplexes and PNA·RNA2 triplexes. Here, we describe the synthesis and purification of PNA oligomers incorporating modified residues, and describe biochemical and biophysical methods for characterization of the recognition of RNA duplexes by the modified PNAs.
Journal of Visualized Experiments
© 2017 The Author(s) (Journal of Visualized Experiments). Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.