3D CNN Based Automatic Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Using Functional and Structural MRI
Mckeown, Martin J.
Wang, Z. Jane
Date of Issue2017
School of Computer Science and Engineering
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental-health disorders. As a neurodevelopment disorder, neuroimaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), coupled with machine learning algorithms, are being increasingly explored as biomarkers in ADHD. Among various machine learning methods, deep learning has demonstrated excellent performance on many imaging tasks. With the availability of publically-available, large neuroimaging data sets for training purposes, deep learning-based automatic diagnosis of psychiatric disorders can become feasible. In this paper, we develop a deep learning-based ADHD classification method via 3-D convolutional neural networks (CNNs) applied to MRI scans. Since deep neural networks may utilize millions of parameters, even the large number of MRI samples in pooled data sets is still relatively limited if one is to learn discriminative features from the raw data. Instead, here we propose to first extract meaningful 3-D low-level features from functional MRI (fMRI) and structural MRI (sMRI) data. Furthermore, inspired by radiologists’ typical approach for examining brain images, we design a 3-D CNN model to investigate the local spatial patterns of MRI features. Finally, we discover that brain functional and structural information are complementary, and design a multi-modality CNN architecture to combine fMRI and sMRI features. Evaluations on the hold-out testing data of the ADHD-200 global competition shows that the proposed multi-modality 3-D CNN approach achieves the state-of-the-art accuracy of 69.15% and outperforms reported classifiers in the literature, even with fewer training samples. We suggest that multi-modality classification will be a promising direction to find potential neuroimaging biomarkers of neurodevelopment disorders.
Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder
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