Ca 2+ releases E‐Syt1 autoinhibition to couple ER‐plasma membrane tethering with lipid transport
De Camilli, Pietro
Date of Issue2017
Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine
The extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts) are endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins that bind the plasma membrane (PM) via C2 domains and transport lipids between them via SMP domains. E-Syt1 tethers and transports lipids in a Ca2+-dependent manner, but the role of Ca2+ in this regulation is unclear. Of the five C2 domains of E-Syt1, only C2A and C2C contain Ca2+-binding sites. Using liposome-based assays, we show that Ca2+ binding to C2C promotes E-Syt1-mediated membrane tethering by releasing an inhibition that prevents C2E from interacting with PI(4,5)P2-rich membranes, as previously suggested by studies in semi-permeabilized cells. Importantly, Ca2+ binding to C2A enables lipid transport by releasing a charge-based autoinhibitory interaction between this domain and the SMP domain. Supporting these results, E-Syt1 constructs defective in Ca2+ binding in either C2A or C2C failed to rescue two defects in PM lipid homeostasis observed in E-Syts KO cells, delayed diacylglycerol clearance from the PM and impaired Ca2+-triggered phosphatidylserine scrambling. Thus, a main effect of Ca2+ on E-Syt1 is to reverse an autoinhibited state and to couple membrane tethering with lipid transport.
The EMBO Journal
© 2017 The Author(s) (Published by EMBO Press). This is the author created version of a work that has been peer reviewed and accepted for publication in The EMBO Journal, published by EMBO Press on behalf of the Author(s). It incorporates referee’s comments but changes resulting from the publishing process, such as copyediting, structural formatting, may not be reflected in this document. The published version is available at: [http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.201797359].