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Title: Theranostic Probes for Targeting Tumor Microenvironment: An Overview
Authors: Sikkandhar, Musafar Gani
Nedumaran, Anu Maashaa
Ravichandar, Roopa
Singh, Satnam
Santhakumar, Induja
Goh, Zheng Cong
Mishra, Sachin
Archunan, Govindaraju
Gulyás, Balázs
Padmanabhan, Parasuraman
Keywords: Nanoparticle
Tumor Microenvironment
Issue Date: 2017
Source: Sikkandhar, M. G., Nedumaran, A. M., Ravichandar, R., Singh, S., Santhakumar, I., Goh, Z. C., et al. (2017). Theranostic Probes for Targeting Tumor Microenvironment: An Overview. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18(5), 1036-.
Series/Report no.: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Abstract: Long gone is the time when tumors were thought to be insular masses of cells, residing independently at specific sites in an organ. Now, researchers gradually realize that tumors interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM), blood vessels, connective tissues, and immune cells in their environment, which is now known as the tumor microenvironment (TME). It has been found that the interactions between tumors and their surrounds promote tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. The dynamics and diversity of TME cause the tumors to be heterogeneous and thus pose a challenge for cancer diagnosis, drug design, and therapy. As TME is significant in enhancing tumor progression, it is vital to identify the different components in the TME such as tumor vasculature, ECM, stromal cells, and the lymphatic system. This review explores how these significant factors in the TME, supply tumors with the required growth factors and signaling molecules to proliferate, invade, and metastasize. We also examine the development of TME-targeted nanotheranostics over the recent years for cancer therapy, diagnosis, and anticancer drug delivery systems. This review further discusses the limitations and future perspective of nanoparticle based theranostics when used in combination with current imaging modalities like Optical Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Nuclear Imaging (Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT)).
ISSN: 1661-6596
Rights: © 2017 by The Author(s). Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:LKCMedicine Journal Articles

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