dc.contributor.authorDas, Dhiman
dc.contributor.authorSivasubramanian, Kathyayini
dc.contributor.authorYang, Chun
dc.contributor.authorPramanik, Manojit
dc.identifier.citationDas, D., Sivasubramanian, K., Yang, C., & Pramanik, M. (2018). On-chip generation of microbubbles in photoacoustic contrast agents for dual modal ultrasound/photoacoustic in vivo animal imaging. Scientific Reports, 8, 6401-.en_US
dc.description.abstractDual-modal photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasound (US) contrast agents are becoming increasingly popular in recent years. Here, a flow-focusing junction based microfluidic device is used for the generation of nitrogen microbubbles (<7 μm) in two photoacoustic contrast agents: methylene blue (MB) and black ink (BI). The microbubble diameter and production rate could be precisely controlled in both MB and BI solutions. Microbubbles were collected from the outlet of the microfluidic device and optical microscope was used to study the size distributions in both solutions. Next, the microbubbles in both solutions were injected into tubes for phantom imaging experiments. Signal to noise ratio (SNR) of both US, PA imaging experiments were calculated to be 51 dB, 58 dB in MB + microbubbles and 56 dB, 61 dB in BI + microbubbles, respectively. Finally, the microbubbles were injected into the urinary bladder of rats for in vivo animal imaging. The SNR in US imaging with MB + microbubbles and BI + microbubbles were 41 dB and 48 dB, respectively. Similarly, the SNR in PA imaging with the same solutions were 32 dB and 36 dB, respectively. The effect of size and concentration of microbubbles in both MB and BI solutions, on the US and PA signals, has been examined.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMOE (Min. of Education, S’pore)en_US
dc.format.extent10 p.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesScientific Reportsen_US
dc.rights© 2018 The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Te images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.en_US
dc.subjectBiomedical Engineeringen_US
dc.subjectImaging Techniquesen_US
dc.titleOn-chip generation of microbubbles in photoacoustic contrast agents for dual modal ultrasound/photoacoustic in vivo animal imagingen_US
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Chemical and Biomedical Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineeringen_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US

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