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Title: Stable hydrothermal waves at steady state evaporating droplet surface
Authors: Zhong, Xin
Duan, Fei
Keywords: Evaporation
DRNTU::Engineering::Mechanical engineering
Hydrothermal Waves
Issue Date: 2017
Source: Zhong, X., & Duan, F. (2017). Stable hydrothermal waves at steady state evaporating droplet surface. Scientific Reports, 7, 16219-. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-16582-0
Series/Report no.: Scientific Reports
Abstract: Stable hydrothermal waves (HTWs) are found at a sessile ethanol droplet surface under the steady state evaporation. It is different from those which greatly decrease with the evaporation time in the transient droplet drying process. This study removes the possible effect of shrinking droplet on HTWs. An analysis of the dimensionless numbers indicates the increasingly enhanced role of thermocapillary instabilities upon raising the substrate temperature. The onset HTWs can be continuously maintained under the steady state evaporation conditions. Interestingly, the stable number of HTWs follows a linear fitting with the dimensionless factor incorporating the normalized temperature difference between the substrate and the surroundings and the droplet aspect ratio. The temperature heterogeneity of HTWs is intensified by increasing the substrate temperature. The stable HTWs exhibit the “one source-to-one sink” propagation at lower substrate temperatures. However, such directional traveling, normally presented in the transient HTWs in the drying droplet, is changed at the higher substrate temperatures due to the newly emerged sources and sinks under the steady state conditions.
ISSN: 2045-2322
Rights: © 2017 The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Te images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:MAE Journal Articles

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