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Title: Brain-computer-interface-based intervention re-normalizes brain functional network topology in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Authors: Qian, Xing
Loo, Beatrice Rui Yi
Castellanos, Francisco Xavier
Liu, Siwei
Koh, Hui Li
Krishnan, Ranga
Fung, Daniel
Guan, Cuntai
Lee, Tih-Shih
Lim, Choon Guan
Zhou, Juan
Poh, Wendy Xue Wei
Chee, Michael W. L.
Keywords: DRNTU::Engineering::Computer science and engineering
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Brain-Computer-Interface (BCI)
Issue Date: 2018
Source: Qian, X., Loo, B. R. Y., Castellanos, F. X., Liu, S., Koh, H. L., Poh, W. X. W., . . . Zhou, J. (2018). Brain-computer-interface-based intervention re-normalizes brain functional network topology in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Translational Psychiatry, 8(1), 149-. doi:10.1038/s41398-018-0213-8
Series/Report no.: Translational Psychiatry
Abstract: A brain-computer-interface (BCI)-based attention training game system has shown promise for treating attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children with inattentive symptoms. However, little is known about brain network organizational changes underlying behavior improvement following BCI-based training. To cover this gap, we aimed to examine the topological alterations of large-scale brain functional networks induced by the 8-week BCI-based attention intervention in ADHD boys using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging method. Compared to the non-intervention (ADHD-NI) group, the intervention group (ADHD-I) showed greater reduction of inattention symptoms accompanied with differential brain network reorganizations after training. Specifically, the ADHD-NI group had increased functional connectivity (FC) within the salience/ventral attention network (SVN) and increased FC between task-positive networks (including the SVN, dorsal attention (DAN), somatomotor, and executive control network) and subcortical regions; in contrast ADHD-I group did not have this pattern. In parallel, ADHD-I group had reduced degree centrality and clustering coefficient as well as increased closeness in task-positive and the default mode networks (prefrontal regions) after the training. More importantly, these reduced local functional processing mainly in the SVN were associated with less inattentive/internalizing problems after 8-week BCI-based intervention across ADHD patients. Our findings suggest that the BCI-based attention training facilitates behavioral improvement in ADHD children by reorganizing brain functional network from more regular to more random configurations, particularly renormalizing salience network processing. Future long-term longitudinal neuroimaging studies are needed to develop the BCI-based intervention approach to promote brain maturation in ADHD.
DOI: 10.1038/s41398-018-0213-8
Rights: © 2018 The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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