The potential of fluocinolone acetonide to mitigate inflammation and lipid accumulation in 2D and 3D foam cell cultures
Nguyen, Luong T. H.
Wong, Yee Shan
Thaxton, Colby S.
Venkatraman, Subbu Subramanian
Ng, Kee Woei
Date of Issue2018
School of Materials Science and Engineering
Inflammation plays an important role in all stages of atherosclerosis development. Therefore, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs could reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events due to atherosclerosis. Herein, we explored the capacity of fluocinolone acetonide (FA), a glucocorticoid (GC), in modulating foam cell formation and response. Human THP-1 derived foam cells were produced using 100 μg/mL oxidized low-density lipoproteins (OxLDL) and fetal bovine serum (1 and 10%). 2D cultures of these cells were treated with FA (0.1, 1, 10, and 50 μg/mL) in comparison with dexamethasone (Dex). Results showed that treatment with 0.1 and 1 μg/mL FA and Dex improved foam cell survival. FA and Dex also inhibited inflammatory cytokine (CD14, M-CSF, MIP-3α, and TNF-α) secretion. Notably, at the concentration of 1 μg/mL, both FA and Dex reduced cholesteryl ester accumulation. Compared to Dex, FA was significantly better in reducing lipid accumulation at the therapeutic concentrations of 1 and 10 μg/mL. In a novel 3D foam cell spheroid model, FA was shown to be more effective than Dex in diminishing lipid accumulation, at the concentration of 0.1 μg/mL. Taken together, FA was demonstrated to be effective in preventing both lipid accumulation and inflammation in foam cells.
BioMed Research International
© 2018 Luong T. H. Nguyen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.