Suppression of interfacial voids formation during silane (SiH4)-based silicon oxide bonding with a thin silicon nitride capping layer
Lee, Kwang Hong
Fitzgerald, Eugene A.
Tan, Chuan Seng
Date of Issue2018
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Singapore-MIT Alliance Programme
The material properties and bonding behavior of silane-based silicon oxide layers deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed to determine the chemical composition of the silicon oxide films. The incorporation of hydroxyl (–OH) groups and moisture absorption demonstrates a strong correlation with the storage duration for both as-deposited and annealed silicon oxide films. It is observed that moisture absorption is prevalent in the silane-based silicon oxide film due to its porous nature. The incorporation of –OH groups and moisture absorption in the silicon oxide films increase with the storage time (even in clean-room environments) for both as-deposited and annealed silicon oxide films. Due to silanol condensation and silicon oxidation reactions that take place at the bonding interface and in the bulk silicon, hydrogen (a byproduct of these reactions) is released and diffused towards the bonding interface. The trapped hydrogen forms voids over time. Additionally, the absorbed moisture could evaporate during the post-bond annealing of the bonded wafer pair. As a consequence, defects, such as voids, form at the bonding interface. To address the problem, a thin silicon nitride capping film was deposited on the silicon oxide layer before bonding to serve as a diffusion barrier to prevent moisture absorption and incorporation of –OH groups from the ambient. This process results in defect-free bonded wafers.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Silicon Oxide Films
Silicon Oxide Films
Journal of Applied Physics
© 2018 The Author(s). All rights reserved. This paper was published by AIP Publishing in Journal of Applied Physics and is made available with permission of The Author(s).