Photoacoustic imaging depth comparison at 532-, 800-, and 1064-nm wavelengths : Monte Carlo simulation and experimental validation
Date of Issue2019
School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) provides high-resolution and high-optical-contrast imaging beyond optical diffusion limit. Further improvement in imaging depth has been achieved by using near-infrared window-I (NIR-I, 700 to 900 nm) for illumination, due to lower scattering and absorption by tissues in this wavelength range. Recently, near-infrared window-II (NIR-II, 900 to 1700 nm) has been explored for PAI. We studied the imaging depths in biological tissues for different illumination wavelengths in visible, NIR-I, and NIR-II regions using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and validated with experimental results. MC simulations were done to compute fluence in tissue, absorbance in blood vessel, and in a spherical absorber (mimicking sentinel lymph node) embedded at different depths in breast tissue. Photoacoustic tomography and acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy experiments were conducted to validate the MC results. We demonstrate that maximum imaging depth is achieved by wavelengths in NIR-I window (∼800 nm) when the energy density deposited is same for all wavelengths. However, illumination using wavelengths around 1064 nm (NIR-II window) gives the maximum imaging depth when the energy density deposited is proportional to maximum permissible exposure (MPE) at corresponding wavelength. These results show that it is the higher MPE of NIR-II window that helps in increasing the PAI depth for chromophores embedded in breast tissue.
Journal of Biomedical Optics
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