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Title: LIR motif-containing hyperdisulfide β-ginkgotide is cytoprotective, adaptogenic, and scaffold-ready
Authors: Dutta, Bamaprasad
Huang, Jiayi
To, Janet
Tam, James P.
Keywords: Science::Biological sciences
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Dutta, B., Huang, J., To, J., & Tam, J. P. (2019). LIR Motif-Containing Hyperdisulfide β-Ginkgotide is Cytoprotective, Adaptogenic, and Scaffold-Ready. Molecules, 24(13), 2417-. doi:10.3390/molecules24132417
Series/Report no.: Molecules
Abstract: Grafting a bioactive peptide onto a disulfide-rich scaffold is a promising approach to improve its structure and metabolic stability. The ginkgo plant-derived β-ginkgotide β-gB1 is a highly unusual molecule: Small, hyperdisulfide, and found only in selected ancient plants. It also contains a conserved 16-amino-acid core with three interlocking disulfides, as well as a six-amino-acid inter-cysteine loop 2 suitable for grafting peptide epitopes. However, very little is known about this recently-discovered family of molecules. Here, we report the biophysical and functional characterizations of the β-ginkgotide β-gB1 from G. biloba. A circular dichroism spectroscopy analysis at 90 °C and proteolytic treatments of β-gB1 supported that it is hyperstable. Data mining revealed that the β-gB1 loop 2 contains the canonical LC3 interacting region (LIR) motif crucial for selective autophagy. Cell-based assays and pull-down experiments showed that β-gB1 is an adaptogen, able to maintain cellular homeostasis through induced autophagosomes formation and to protect cells by targeting intracellular proteins from stress-mediated damage against hypoxia and the hypoxia-reoxygenation of induced cell death. This is the first report of an LIR-containing peptide natural product. Together, our results suggest that the plant-derived β-ginkgotide is cytoprotective, capable of targeting intracellular proteins, and holds promise as a hyperdisulfide scaffold for engineering peptidyl therapeutics with enhanced structural and metabolic stability.
ISSN: 1420-3049
DOI: 10.3390/molecules24132417
Rights: © 2019 by the Authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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