Low-dose tetracycline exposure alters gut bacterial metabolism and host-immune response : “personalized” effect?
Keerthisinghe, Tharushi Prabha
Date of Issue2019
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute
Advanced Environmental Biotechnology Centre
The human gut microbiome (GM) in healthy people is chronically exposed to tetracycline (TET) via environmental exposure and dietary uptake. However, limited information is available on its effect on the GM metabolome and effect on the host, especially at the dietary exposure level. Here, we investigated how TET at both sub-pharmaceutical and dietary exposure levels affects the metabolome and the secretome-induced host immune response by studying several representative gut bacteria. Interestingly, the metabolome showed a highly species-specific pattern with a distinct dose-response relationship. B. fragilis was highly sensitive to TET and vitamin, nucleotide, and amino acid metabolism pathways were the most vulnerable metabolic pathways at dietary exposure level. For key metabolite short chain fatty acids, TET significantly induced the synthesis of butyrate in B. fragilis, rather than C. sporogenes and E. coli. Furthermore, TET induced the release of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in E. coli and enhanced the immune response; however, there was no obvious effect on B. fragilis. Interestingly, the overall immune response modulation with TET exposure relied on the ratio between E. coli and B. fragilis, possibly due to the neutralization of active LPS from E. coli by the LPS from B. fragilis. Overall, our results showed that the effect of TET from environmental exposure on the host health would be highly dependent on the GM composition, especially for the gut bacterial metabolome and secretome induced immune response.
© 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY-NC-ND/4.0/).