Interferential lithography of 1D thin metallic sinusoidal gratings : accurate control of the profile for azimuthal angular dependent plasmonic effects and applications
Kang, Husen Kartasasmita
Lee, Kwang Hong
Wong, Chee Cheong
Date of Issue2009
School of Materials Science and Engineering
Nonlinear processes involved in the manufacture of nominally sinusoidal surface relief diffraction gratings generated by interference lithography can introduce distortions into the profile of these surfaces. Such distortions may dramatically affect both the specular reflectivity and diffracted efficiencies from such a surface [H. Raether, Phys. Thin Film 9 (1977) 145-261]. We shall consider in particular the case of metallic gratings used to investigate plasmonic effects that can be engineered for bio-sensing applications. To investigate these effects, interference lithography (IL) has been used for the generation of profile controlled sinusoidal plasmonic crystals. IL exposure contrast study has been performed to control the amplitude oscillation and the surface roughness quality. Bi-metallic layer of silver and gold have been systematically deposited with different film thicknesses. A comprehensive numerical model that studies the optical coupling to surface plasmon polaritons on Ag/Au gratings has been undertaken for the simulation of the reflectivity and azimuthal angle dependence [Z. Chen, I.R. Hooper, J.R. Sambles, J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10 (1) (2008) 015007]. This computation illustrates the sensitivity of individual features to specific harmonic components of the surface, for surface plasmon resonances recorded in both the zeroth and higher diffracted orders. The roughness surface control after development and after bi-metallic evaporation strongly contributes to tighten the width of the reflectivity peak. Optimization process has shown that for an Ag (37nm) and Au (7nm) metallic bilayer, a semi-amplitude of 20nm provides the best reflectivity.