Visualizing the perturbation of cellular cyclic di-GMP levels in bacterial cells
Ho, Chun Loong
Chong, Kavin Shi Jie
Oppong, Jamila Akosua
Chuah, Mary Lay-Cheng
Tan, Suet Mien
Date of Issue2013
School of Biological Sciences
Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has emerged as a prominent intracellular messenger that coordinates biofilm formation and pathogenicity in many bacterial species. Developing genetically encoded biosensors for c-di-GMP will help us understand how bacterial cells respond to environmental changes via the modulation of cellular c-di-GMP levels. Here we report the design of two genetically encoded c-di-GMP fluorescent biosensors with complementary dynamic ranges. By using the biosensors, we found that several compounds known to promote biofilm dispersal trigger a decline in c-di-GMP levels in Escherichia coli cells. In contrast, cellular c-di-GMP levels were elevated when the bacterial cells were treated with subinhibitory concentrations of biofilm-promoting antibiotics. The biosensors also revealed that E. coli cells engulfed by macrophages exhibit lower c-di-GMP levels, most likely as a response to the enormous pressures of survival during phagocytosis.
Journal of the American chemical society
© 2013 American Chemical Society. This is the author created version of a work that has been peer reviewed and accepted for publication by Journal of the American Chemical Society, American Chemical Society. It incorporates referee’s comments but changes resulting from the publishing process, such as copyediting, structural formatting, may not be reflected in this document. The published version is available at: [http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja310497x].