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Title: Emergency water supply : a review of potential technologies and selection criteria
Authors: Loo, Siew-Leng
Fane, Anthony Gordon
Krantz, William B.
Lim, Teik-Thye
Issue Date: 2012
Source: Loo, S.-L., Fane, A. G., Krantz, W. B., & Lim, T.-T. (2012). Emergency water supply: A review of potential technologies and selection criteria. Water Research, 46, 3125-3151.
Series/Report no.: Water Research
Abstract: Access to safe drinking water is one of the first priorities following a disaster. However, providing drinking water to the affected population (AP) is challenging due to severe contamination and lack of access to infrastructure. An onsite treatment system for the AP is a more sustainable solution than transporting bottled water. Emergency water technologies (WTs) that are modular, mobile or portable are suitable for emergency relief. This paper reviews WTs including membrane technologies that are suitable for use in emergencies. Physical, chemical, thermal- and light-based treatment methods, and membrane technologies driven by different driving forces such as pressure, temperature and osmotic gradients are reviewed. Each WT is evaluated by ten mutually independent criteria: costs, ease of deployment, ease of use, maintenance, performance, potential acceptance, energy requirements, supply chain requirements, throughput and environmental impact. A scoring system based on these criteria is presented. A methodology for emergency WT selection based on compensatory multi-criteria analysis is developed and discussed. Finally, critical research needs are identified.
ISSN: 0043-1354
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2012.03.030
Rights: © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Fulltext Permission: none
Fulltext Availability: No Fulltext
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