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Title: Size, separation, structural order, and mass density of molecules packing in water and ice
Authors: Sun, Changqing
Huang, Yongli
Zhang, Xi
Ma, Zengsheng
Li, Wen
Zhou, Yichun
Zhou, Ji
Zheng, Weitao
Keywords: DRNTU::Engineering::Electrical and electronic engineering::Molecular electronics
Issue Date: 2013
Source: Huang, Y., Zhang, X., Ma, Z., Li, W., Zhou, Y., Zhou, J., et al. (2013). Size, separation, structural order, and mass density of molecules packing in water and ice. Scientific reports, 3, 1-5.
Series/Report no.: Scientific reports
Abstract: The structural symmetry and molecular separation in water and ice remain uncertain. We present herewith a solution to unifying the density, the structure order and symmetry, the size (H-O length dH), and the separation (dOO = dL + dH or the O:H length dL) of molecules packing in water and ice in terms of statistic mean. This solution reconciles: i) the dL and the dH symmetrization of the O:H-O bond in compressed ice, ii) the dOO relaxation of cooling water and ice and, iii) the dOO expansion of a dimer and between molecules at water surface. With any one of the dOO, the density ρ(g·cm−3), the dL, and the dH, as a known input, one can resolve the rest quantities using this solution that is probing conditions or methods independent. We clarified that: i) liquid water prefers statistically the mono-phase of tetrahedrally-coordinated structure with fluctuation, ii) the low-density phase (supersolid phase as it is strongly polarized with even lower density) exists only in regions consisting molecules with fewer than four neighbors and, iii) repulsion between electron pairs on adjacent oxygen atoms dictates the cooperative relaxation of the segmented O:H-O bond, which is responsible for the performance of water and ice.
ISSN: 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/srep03005
Rights: © 2013 The Authors. This paper was published in Scientific Reports and is made available as an electronic reprint (preprint) with permission of the authors. The paper can be found at the following official DOI: []. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic or multiple reproduction, distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper is prohibited and is subject to penalties under law.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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