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Title: A multi-resolution ensemble study of a tropical urban environment and its interactions with the background regional atmosphere
Authors: Li, Xian Xiang
Koh, Tieh Yong
Entekhabi, Dara
Roth, Matthias
Panda, Jagabandhu
Norford, Leslie K.
Keywords: Physical and Mathematical Sciences
Issue Date: 2013
Source: Li, X. X., Koh, T. Y., Entekhabi, D., Roth, M., Panda, J., & Norford, L. K. (2013). A multi-resolution ensemble study of a tropical urban environment and its interactions with the background regional atmosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118(17), 9804-9818.
Series/Report no.: Journal of geophysical research : atmospheres
Abstract: This study employed the Weather Research and Forecasting model with a single-layer urban canopy model to investigate the urban environment of a tropical city, Singapore. The coupled model was evaluated against available observational data from a sensor network and flux tower. The effects of land use type and anthropogenic heat (AH) on the thermal and wind environment were investigated with a series of sensitivity tests using an ensemble approach for low advection, high convective available potential energy, intermonsoon season cases. The diurnal cycle and spatial pattern of urban heat island (UHI) intensity and planetary boundary layer height were investigated. The mean UHI intensity peaked in the early morning at 2.2°C, reaching 2.4°C in industrial areas. Sea and land breezes developed during daytime and nighttime, respectively, with the former much stronger than the latter. The model predicted that sea breezes from different coastlines of the Malay Peninsula meet and converge, inducing strong updrafts. AH was found to play roles in all the processes studied, while the effect of different land use types was most pronounced during nighttime, and least visible near noon.
ISSN: 2169-897X
DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50795
Schools: School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences 
Research Centres: Singapore-MIT Alliance Programme 
Rights: © 2013 American Geophysical Union. This paper was published in Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres and is made available as an electronic reprint (preprint) with permission of American Geophysical Union. The paper can be found at the following official DOI: [].  One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic or multiple reproduction, distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper is prohibited and is subject to penalties under law.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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