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Title: Assessing the origin of and potential for international spread of Chikungunya virus from the Caribbean
Authors: Khan, Kamran
Bogoch, Isaac
Brownstein, John S.
Miniota, Jennifer
Nicolucci, Adrian
Hu, Wei
Nsoesie, Elaine O.
Cetron, Martin
Creatore, Maria Isabella
German, Matthew
Wilder-Smith, Annelies
Keywords: DRNTU::Science::Medicine
Issue Date: 2014
Source: Khan, K., Bogoch, I., Brownstein, J. S., Miniota, J., Nicolucci, A., Hu, W., et al. (2014). Assessing the origin of and potential for international spread of Chikungunya virus from the Caribbean. PLoS currents, in press.
Series/Report no.: PLoS Currents
Abstract: Background: For the first time, an outbreak of chikungunya has been reported in the Americas. Locally acquired infections have been confirmed in fourteen Caribbean countries and dependent territories, Guyana and French Guiana, in which a large number of North American travelers vacation. Should some travelers become infected with chikungunya virus, they could potentially introduce it into the United States, where there are competent Aedes mosquito vectors, with the possibility of local transmission. Methods: We analyzed historical data on airline travelers departing areas of the Caribbean and South America, where locally acquired cases of chikungunya have been confirmed as of May 12th, 2014. The final destinations of travelers departing these areas between May and July 2012 were determined and overlaid on maps of the reported distribution of Aedes aeygpti and albopictus mosquitoes in the United States, to identify potential areas at risk of autochthonous transmission. Results: The United States alone accounted for 52.1% of the final destinations of all international travelers departing chikungunya indigenous areas of the Caribbean between May and July 2012. Cities in the United States with the highest volume of air travelers were New York City, Miami and San Juan (Puerto Rico). Miami and San Juan were high travel-volume cities where Aedes aeygpti or albopictus are reported and where climatic conditions could be suitable for autochthonous transmission. Conclusion: The rapidly evolving outbreak of chikungunya in the Caribbean poses a growing risk to countries and areas linked by air travel, including the United States where competent Aedes mosquitoes exist. The risk of chikungunya importation into the United States may be elevated following key travel periods in the spring, when large numbers of North American travelers typically vacation in the Caribbean.
ISSN: 2157-3999
DOI: 10.1371/currents.outbreaks.2134a0a7bf37fd8d388181539fea2da5
Rights: © 2014 The Author(s). This paper was published in PLoS Currents and is made available as an electronic reprint (preprint) with permission of Public Library of Science. The paper can be found at the following official DOI: [].  One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic or multiple reproduction, distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper is prohibited and is subject to penalties under law.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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