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Title: The role of microglia in bacterial meningitis : inflammatory response, experimental models and new neuroprotective therapeutic strategies
Authors: Thorsdottir, Sigrun
Henriques-Normark, Birgitta
Iovino, Federico
Keywords: Bacterial Meningitis
DRNTU::Science::Biological sciences
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Thorsdottir, S., Henriques-Normark, B., & Iovino, F. (2019). The role of microglia in bacterial meningitis : inflammatory response, experimental models and new neuroprotective therapeutic strategies. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10, 576-. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.00576
Series/Report no.: Frontiers in Microbiology
Abstract: Microglia have a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis. The goal of this review is to provide an overview on how microglia respond to bacterial pathogens targeting the brain, how the interplay between microglia and bacteria can be studied experimentally, and possible ways to use gained knowledge to identify novel preventive and therapeutic strategies. We discuss the dual role of microglia in disease development, the beneficial functions crucial for bacterial clearing, and the destructive properties through triggering neuroinflammation, characterized by cytokine and chemokine release which leads to leukocyte trafficking through the brain vascular endothelium and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier integrity. Due to intrinsic complexity of microglia and up until recently lack of specific markers, the study of microglial response to bacterial pathogens is challenging. New experimental models and techniques open up possibilities to accelerate progress in the field. We review existing models and discuss possibilities and limitations. Finally, we summarize recent findings where bacterial virulence factors are identified to be important for the microglial response, and how manipulation of evoked responses could be used for therapeutic or preventive purposes. Among promising approaches are: modulations of microglia phenotype switching toward anti-inflammatory and phagocytic functions, the use of non-bacterolytic antimicrobials, preventing release of bacterial components into the neural milieu and consequential amplification of immune activation, and protection of the blood-brain barrier integrity.
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00576
Rights: © 2019 Thorsdottir, Henriques-Normark and Iovino. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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