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dc.contributor.authorYin, Keen
dc.contributor.authorAhamed, Ashiqen
dc.contributor.authorLisak, Grzegorzen
dc.identifier.citationYin, K., Ahamed, A., & Lisak, G. (2018). Environmental perspectives of recycling various combustion ashes in cement production – a review. Waste Management, 78, 401-416. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2018.06.012en
dc.description.abstractRecycling different types of ashes for cement production has gained increasing attentions worldwide in a bid to close the waste loop. It minimizes waste landfilling and meanwhile produces useful secondary materials with reduced costs. Ascribed to the presence of elevated metal concentrations, however, it also receives negative inclination for their reuse. Herein, recycling various combustion ashes, such as municipal solid waste incineration fly ashes (MSWI FA), municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes (MSWI BA), coal fly ashes (CFA), coal bottom ashes (CBA), blast furnace slags (BFS), biomass ashes (BIOA), sewage sludge ashes (SSA) and different co-combustion ashes (CCA), were comprehensively reviewed, from environmental perspectives combined with statistical data analysis (e.g. bulk components, trace metals, leaching potential, and etc.), to quantitatively explore their feasibility during cement production. It was unveiled that pozzolanic contents were predominant which highly fluctuated in their composition based on the ash type, limiting the replacement at maximum of 5–10 wt%. Considering total metal criteria, heavy metal contents posed challenges as secondary raw materials for blended cements. However, in consideration of metal leaching criteria, exothermic pozzolanic reactions in the second phase of blended cement would sufficiently alleviate their leaching potential, ensuring the environmental feasibility. Apart from the above, treatment costs have to be evaluated in nexus of multiple factors, whereas government policies play significant roles in valorization of recycling ashes. From sustainability perspective, life cycle assessment promises the overall strategy on ash utilization in cement industry.en
dc.format.extent48 p.en
dc.relation.ispartofseriesWaste Managementen
dc.rights© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This paper was published in Waste Management and is made available with permission of Elsevier Ltd.en
dc.subjectCombustion Ashesen
dc.subjectEngineering::Civil engineeringen
dc.titleEnvironmental perspectives of recycling various combustion ashes in cement production – a reviewen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen
dc.contributor.researchNanyang Environment and Water Research Instituteen
dc.contributor.researchResidues and Resource Reclamation Centreen
dc.description.versionAccepted versionen
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