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Title: Synergistic study of a Danshen (Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma) and Sanqi (Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma) combination on cell survival in EA.hy926 cells
Authors: Zhou, Xian
Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina
Kam, Antony
Chang, Dennis
Li, Chun Guang
Chan, Kelvin
Bensoussan, Alan
Keywords: Danshen-Sanqi
DRNTU::Science::Biological sciences
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Zhou, X., Razmovski-Naumovski, V., Kam, A., Chang, D., Li, C. G., Chan, K., & Bensoussan, A. (2019). Synergistic study of a Danshen (Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma) and Sanqi (Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma) combination on cell survival in EA.hy926 cells. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 19, 50-. doi:10.1186/s12906-019-2458-z
Series/Report no.: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Abstract: Background: This study investigated the protective effects of the Danshen (DS) and Sanqi (SQ) herb pair on cell survival in the human cardiovascular endothelial (EA.hy926) cell line exposed to injury. Methods: Nine combination ratios of Danshen-Sanqi extracts (DS-SQ) were screened for their protective effects in the EA.hy926 cell line against two different cellular impairments induced by DL-homocysteine (Hcy) – adenosine (Ado) – tumour necrosis factors (TNF) and oxidative stress (H2O2), respectively. The type of interaction (synergistic, antagonistic, additive) between DS and SQ was analysed using a combination index (CI) model. The effects of key bioactive compounds from DS and SQ were tested using the same models. The compound from each herb that demonstrated the most potent activity in cell viability was combined to evaluate their synergistic/antagonistic interaction using CI. Results: DS-SQ ratios of 6:4 (50–300 μg/mL) produced synergistic effects (CI < 1) in restoring cell viability, reducing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and caspase-3 expressions against Hcy-Ado-TNF. Additionally, DS-SQ 6:4 (50–150 μg/mL) was found to synergistically protect endothelial cells from impaired cellular injury induced by oxidative damage (H2O2) by restoring reduced cell viability and inhibiting excessive expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In particular, the combination of salvianolic acid A (SA) and ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) at 4:6 (1–150 μM) showed synergistic effects in preventing cytotoxic effects caused by Hcy-Ado-TNF (CI < 1). This simplified combination also demonstrated synergistic effects on H2O2-induced oxidative damage on EA.hy926 cells. Conclusions: This study provides scientific evidence to support the traditional use of the DS-SQ combination on protecting endothelial cells through their synergistic interactions.
DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2458-z
Schools: School of Biological Sciences 
Rights: © 2019 The Author(s). Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0. International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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