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Title: A novel entomological index, Aedes aegypti Breeding Percentage, reveals the geographical spread of the dengue vector in Singapore and serves as a spatial risk indicator for dengue
Authors: Ong, Janet
Liu, Xu
Rajarethinam, Jayanthi
Yap, Grace
Ho, Derek
Ng, Lee Ching
Keywords: Aedes Aegypti
DRNTU::Science::Biological sciences
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Ong, J., Liu, X., Rajarethinam, J., Yap, G., Ho, D., & Ng, L. C. (2019). A novel entomological index, Aedes aegypti Breeding Percentage, reveals the geographical spread of the dengue vector in Singapore and serves as a spatial risk indicator for dengue. Parasites & Vectors, 12, 17-. doi:10.1186/s13071-018-3281-y
Series/Report no.: Parasites & Vectors
Abstract: Background : Aedes aegypti is an efficient primary vector of dengue, and has a heterogeneous distribution in Singapore. Aedes albopictus, a poor vector of dengue, is native and ubiquitous on the island. Though dengue risk follows the dispersal of Ae. aegypti, the spatial distribution of the vector is often poorly characterized. Here, based on the ubiquitous presence of Ae. albopictus, we developed a novel entomological index, Ae. aegypti Breeding Percentage (BP), to demonstrate the expansion of Ae. aegypti into new territories that redefined the dengue burden map in Singapore. We also determined the thresholds of BP that render the specific area higher risk of dengue transmission. Methods : We performed analysis of dengue fever incidence and Aedes mosquito breeding in Singapore by utilizing island-wide dengue cases and vector surveillance data from 2003 to 2013. The percentage of Ae. aegypti breeding among the total Aedes breeding habitats (BP), and the reported number of dengue fever cases in each year were calculated for each residential grid. Results : The BP of grids, for every year over the 11-year study period, had a consistent positive correlation with the annual case counts. Our findings suggest that the geographical expansion of Ae. aegypti to previously “non-dengue” areas have contributed substantially to the recent dengue fever incidence in Singapore. Our analysis further indicated that non-endemic areas in Singapore are likely to beat risk of dengue fever outbreaks beyond an Ae. aegypti BP of 20%. Conclusions : Our analyses indicate areas with increasing Ae. aegypti BP are likely to become more vulnerable to dengue outbreaks. We propose the usage of Ae. aegypti BP as a factor for spatial risk stratification of dengue fever in endemic countries. The Ae. aegypti BP could be recommended as an indicator for decision making in vector control efforts, and also be used to monitor the geographical expansion of Ae. aegypti.
DOI: 10.1186/s13071-018-3281-y
Rights: © 2019 The Author(s). This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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