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Title: Application of hydroponic systems for the treatment of source-separated human urine
Authors: Yang, Linyan
Giannis, Apostolos
Chang, Victor Wei-Chung
Liu, Bianxia
Zhang, Jiefeng
Wang, Jing-Yuan
Keywords: DRNTU::Engineering::Environmental engineering::Waste management
Issue Date: 2015
Source: Yang, L., Giannis, A., Chang, V. W.-C., Liu, B., Zhang, J., & Wang, J.-Y. (2015). Application of hydroponic systems for the treatment of source-separated human urine. Ecological engineering, 81, 182-191.
Series/Report no.: Ecological engineering
Abstract: Hydroponic systems are widely used for the treatment of nutrient rich wastewaters. In this study, a hydroponic system was applied as the final treatment stage of source-separated human urine after urea hydrolysis, induced-struvite precipitation and ammonia stripping in tropical conditions (Singapore). The results showed that water spinach grew efficiently in the pretreated urine with 1:50 dilution ratio at the growth rate 0.68 cm/d, leaf number 2.27 pieces/d, shoot dry mass 0.33 g, water content 93.86%, and nitrogen and potassium conversion rate 0.46 and 0.51 mg/mg, respectively. This hydroponic system removed 58–66% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 41–49% total nitrogen (TN) and up to 47% total suspended solid (TSS), indicating sufficient urine stream polishing. Nitrification was observed when COD reduced by 60%, possibly because of oxygen competition between nitrobacteria for nitrification and microbes for COD degradation. The kinetic study revealed that zero-order model provided best fitting for COD and ammonia-nitrogen (NH4+-N) removal, while second-order model was more suitable for TN removal.
ISSN: 0925-8574
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2015.04.013
Rights: © 2015 Elsevier. This is the author created version of a work that has been peer reviewed and accepted for publication by Ecological Engineering, Elsevier. It incorporates referee’s comments but changes resulting from the publishing process, such as copyediting, structural formatting, may not be reflected in this document. The published version is available at: [].
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:CEE Journal Articles
NEWRI Journal Articles

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