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dc.contributor.authorLee, Yih Hongen
dc.contributor.authorLing, Xing Yien
dc.contributor.authorLee, Mian Rongen
dc.contributor.authorPhang, In Yeeen
dc.contributor.authorCui, Yanen
dc.identifier.citationLee, M. R., Phang, I. Y., Cui, Y., Lee, Y. H., & Ling, X. Y. (2015). Shape-shifting 3D protein microstructures with programmable directionality via quantitative nanoscale stiffness modulation. Small, 11(6), 740-748.en
dc.description.abstractThe ability to shape-shift in response to a stimulus increases an organism's survivability in nature. Similarly, man-made dynamic and responsive “smart” microtechnology is crucial for the advancement of human technology. Here, 10–30 μm shape-changing 3D BSA protein hydrogel microstructures are fabricated with dynamic, quantitative, directional, and angle-resolved bending via two-photon photolithography. The controlled directional responsiveness is achieved by spatially controlling the cross-linking density of BSA at a nanometer lengthscale. Atomic force microscopy measurements of Young's moduli of structures indicate that increasing the laser writing distance at the z-axis from 100–500 nm decreases the modulus of the structure. Hence, through nanoscale modulation of the laser writing z-layer distance at the nanoscale, control over the cross-linking density is possible, allowing for the swelling extent of the microstructures to be quantified and controlled with high precision. This method of segmented moduli is applied within a single microstructure for the design of shape-shifting microstructures that exhibit stimulus-induced chirality, as well as for the fabrication of a free-standing 3D microtrap which is able to open and close in response to a pH change.en
dc.rights© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.en
dc.titleShape-shifting 3D protein microstructures with programmable directionality via quantitative nanoscale stiffness modulationen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Physical and Mathematical Sciencesen
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