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Title: Smart material based on magnetorheological elastomer and its 3D printing
Authors: Bastola, Anil K.
Keywords: Engineering::Mechanical engineering
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Nanyang Technological University
Source: Bastola, A. K. (2019), Smart material based on magnetorheological elastomer and its 3D printing. Doctoral thesis, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
Abstract: Intelligent or smart materials have one or more properties that can be significantly changed in a controlled fashion by external stimuli, such as temperature, pH, electric or magnetic fields, etc. Magnetorheological (MR) materials are a class of smart materials whose properties can be varied by applying an external magnetic field. Two major branches of the magnetorheological materials are MR fluids and MR elastomers. The MR fluids largely suffer from the sedimentation problem. Whereas, MR elastomers conquer the sedimentation problem, the price is to be paid for lower MR effect. For current MR elastomers, a need of magnetic field is mandatory during the fabrication process for the anisotropic configuration of the magnetic particles within the matrix material. However, the applied magnetic field does not promise a unique particle alignment. Similarly, main concerns of current MR elastomer-based applications such as vibration isolators and absorbers are a high-power requirement and bulky configuration. To this end, the focus of this study is to explore the development of hybrid MR elastomer that potentially bridges the gap between MR fluid and MR elastomer. Two different types of fabrication methods have been adopted, first is conventional molding and second is additive manufacturing also known as 3D printing. This is the first time to implement 3D printing method to develop MR elastomers, thus, feasibility and implementation of a new fabrication method, 3D printing has been studied in detail. Lastly, this study explores the techniques to lower the range of the magnetic field needed for the current MRE-based systems. In the conventional fabrication method, a cavity of an elastomer matrix was formed by molding and MR materials were deposited into the cavity to form an MR core within the elastomer matrix. Three different types of MR cores, namely, low viscosity fluid MR core, high viscosity fluid MR core, and solid MR core were considered. On the other hand, in a 3D printing method, extrusion-based multi-material printing was implemented, where MR fluid filaments were printed within an elastomer matrix in the layer-by-layer fashion. The choice of printing materials determines the final structure of the 3D printed hybrid MR elastomer. Printing with a vulcanizing MR suspension produces the solid MR structure inside the elastomer matrix while printing with a non-vulcanizing MR suspension (MR fluid) results in the structures that the MR fluid is encapsulated inside the elastomer matrix. The 3D printability of different materials has been studied by measuring their rheological properties and it was found that the highly shear thinning, and thixotropic properties are important for 3D printability. The quality of the printed filaments strongly depends on the key printing parameters such as extrusion pressure, initial height, feed rate and time. Two different patterned were considered in this study, namely, line-patterned and dot-patterned 3D printed MR elastomers (3DP-MREs), line-patterned samples were formed by continuous printing while dot-patterned samples were formed by discontinuous printing. The cyclic compression and forced vibration experimental testing show that both conventionally developed, and the 3D printed MR elastomers could change their elastic and damping properties when exposed to an external magnetic field. Furthermore, both core-shelled and 3D printed MR elastomers also exhibit an anisotropic behavior when the direction of the magnetic field is changed with respect to the orientation of the printed filaments or printed layers. Core-shell hybrid MR elastomer with high viscosity fluid core avoids the sedimentation issue of the current MR fluid and show a higher MR effect than that of current MR elastomers and also exhibits anisotropic MR effect. Similarly, the sedimentation and settling of magnetic particles are highly unlikely within the small MR fluid filaments in 3DP-MREs. The 3D printing method can develop different configurations of MR fluid or magnetic particles without applying a magnetic field. Putting together, 3DP-MREs or core-shell hybrid MREs with high viscosity fluid MR core are bridge materials between MR fluid and MR elastomers. Moreover, core-shell hybrid MR elastomer and 3DP-MREs also offer the low working range of magnetic field, the increase in the stiffness is much gentler after 300 mT magnetic field. Lastly, a new method was introduced for the development of MRE based vibration isolator by the simultaneous application of preloading and magnetic field. The vibration isolator can work in the low magnetic field range. The preloading effect was noteworthy for significant enhancing the performance of vibration isolator even in lower magnetic field strength.
DOI: 10.32657/10356/137581
Rights: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0).
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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