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dc.contributor.authorLe, Huu Minhen_US
dc.contributor.authorPhan, Phuoc Thienen_US
dc.contributor.authorCao, Linen_US
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Jiajunen_US
dc.contributor.authorPhee, Soo Jayen_US
dc.identifier.citationLe, H. M., Phan, P. T., Cao, L., Liu, J., & Phee, S. J. (2020). A temperature-dependent, variable-stiffness endoscopic robotic manipulator with active heating and cooling. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, in press. doi:10.1007/s10439-020-02495-zen_US
dc.description.abstractIn flexible endoscopy, the endoscope needs to be sufficiently flexible to go through the tortuous paths inside the human body and meanwhile be stiff enough to withstand external payloads without unwanted tip bending during operation. Thus, an endoscope whose stiffness can be adjusted on command is needed. This paper presents a novel variable-stiffness manipulator. The manipulator (Ø15 mm) has embedded thermoplastic tubes whose stiffness is tunable through temperature. Temperature is adjusted through joule heat generated by the electrical current supplied to the stainless steel coils and an active air-cooling mechanism. Tests and modeling were conducted to characterize the performance of the design. The manipulator has a high stiffness-changing ratio (22) between rigid and flexible states while that of its commercial Olympus counterpart is only 1.59. The active cooling time is 11.9 s while that of passive ambient cooling is 100.3 s. The thermal insulation layer (Aerogel) keeps the temperature of the outer surface within the safe range (below 41 °C). The models can describe the heating and cooling processes with root mean square errors ranging from 0.6 to 1.3 °C. The results confirm the feasibility of a variable-stiffness endoscopic manipulator with high stiffness-changing ratio, fast mode-switching, and safe thermal insulation.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNRF (Natl Research Foundation, S’pore)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofAnnals of Biomedical Engineeringen_US
dc.rights© 2020 Biomedical Engineering Society. All rights reserved. This paper was published in Annals of Biomedical Engineering and is made available with permission of Biomedical Engineering Society.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Mechanical engineering::Robotsen_US
dc.titleA temperature-dependent, variable-stiffness endoscopic robotic manipulator with active heating and coolingen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.researchRobotics Research Centreen_US
dc.description.versionAccepted versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsMinimally Invasive Surgeryen_US
dc.subject.keywordsNatural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgeryen_US
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