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dc.contributor.authorTay, Ming Fengen_US
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Changen_US
dc.contributor.authorCornelissen, Emile R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWu, Bingen_US
dc.contributor.authorChong, Tzyy Hauren_US
dc.identifier.citationTay, M. F., Liu, C., Cornelissen, E. R., Wu, B., & Chong, T. H. (2018). The feasibility of nanofiltration membrane bioreactor (NF-MBR)+reverse osmosis (RO) process for water reclamation: Comparison with ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor (UF-MBR)+RO process. Water research, 129, 180-189. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2017.11.013en_US
dc.description.abstractThis study examines the feasibility of a novel nanofiltration membrane bioreactor (NF-MBR) followed by reverse osmosis (RO) process for water reclamation at 90% recovery and using an ultrafiltration MBR (UF-MBR)+RO as baseline for comparison. Both MBRs adopted the same external hollow fiber membrane configurations and operating conditions. The collected permeates of the MBRs were subsequently fed to the respective RO systems. The results showed that the NF-MBR (operated at a constant flux of 10 L/m2h) achieved superior MBR permeate quality due to enhanced biodegradation and high rejection capacity of the NF membrane, leading to lower RO fouling rates (∼3.3 times) as compared to the UF-MBR. Further analysis indicated that the cake layer fouling that caused the cake-enhanced osmotic pressure (CEOP) effect contributed predominantly to the transmembrane pressure (TMP) increase in the NF-MBR, while irreversible pore fouling was the major reason for UF membrane fouling. Furthermore, it was found that the biopolymers (i.e., organics with MW > 10 kDa) were the main components present in the foulants of the NF/UF membranes and RO membranes. The analysis indicated that the NF-MBR + RO system at recovery of 90% has comparable energy consumption as the UF-MBR + RO system at recovery of 75%. Our findings proved the feasibility of the NF-MBR + RO for water reclamation at a high recovery rate.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofWater researchen_US
dc.rights© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Civil engineeringen_US
dc.titleThe feasibility of nanofiltration membrane bioreactor (NF-MBR)+reverse osmosis (RO) process for water reclamation: Comparison with ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor (UF-MBR)+RO processen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.researchNanyang Environment and Water Research Instituteen_US
dc.subject.keywordsEnergy Consumptionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsDissolved Organic Substancesen_US
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